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Sunday, July 12, 2020 | History

3 edition of Mechanisms of the Production of Chromosomal Aberrations in Eukaryotic Cells found in the catalog.

Mechanisms of the Production of Chromosomal Aberrations in Eukaryotic Cells

A. P. Akifyev

Mechanisms of the Production of Chromosomal Aberrations in Eukaryotic Cells

by A. P. Akifyev

  • 254 Want to read
  • 13 Currently reading

Published by Routledge .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Cellular biology,
  • Science / Biology,
  • Life Sciences - Biology - General,
  • Science,
  • Science/Mathematics

  • Edition Notes

    SeriesSoviet Scientific Reviews Series, Section F
    The Physical Object
    FormatPaperback
    Number of Pages54
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL12860528M
    ISBN 103718658291
    ISBN 109783718658299

    Eukaryotic DNA replication is a conserved mechanism that restricts DNA replication to once per cell cycle. Eukaryotic DNA replication of chromosomal DNA is central for the duplication of a cell and is necessary for the maintenance of the eukaryotic genome.. DNA replication is the action of DNA polymerases synthesizing a DNA strand complementary to the original template strand. Reparation mechanisms of nucleic acids. Ethical and legal aspects of medical genetics. The importance and structure of Eukaryotic chromosomes. The inborn errors of metabolism. Population genetics, C-H-W equilibrium. Population polymorphisms and their causes. Methods of nucleic acids analysis. Chromosomal aberrations in etiology of.

      Types of chromosomes with special types. Gene and genome. Linkage and mechanism of linkage. Crossing over, gene mapping and recombination of chromosome. Mutation and classification of mutation. Mutagenic agents and its significance. Structural Chromosomal aberrations. Numerical chromosomal aberrations. Role of DNA Structure of DNA and Function. The influence of aminopterin (AP), tritiated thymidine ([3H] TdR) and "cold" thymidine (TdR) on production of chromosomal aberrations in meristematic cells of Crepis capillaris irradiated in different stages of the mitotic cycle with rad of 63Co gamma-rays was studied.

    (cont) Role of site-directed recombinases in physiologic and pathologic chromosomal rearrangements / Michael R. Lieber --Mechanisms of formation of chromosomal aberrations: role of eukaryotic DNA topoisomerases / Yves Pommier and Richard Bertrand --Chromosomal translocations involving the c-myc oncogene in lymphoid neoplasia / Riccardo Dalla.   The aberrations were scored with the help of a light microscope. Per animal metaphases were scored. Chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, fragments, rings and dicentrics as well as cells showing polyploidy and severely damaged cells (SDC), cells with 10 or more aberrations of any type, the different types of aberrations were scored.


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Mechanisms of the Production of Chromosomal Aberrations in Eukaryotic Cells by A. P. Akifyev Download PDF EPUB FB2

In some eukaryotic cells, an enzyme is found with reverse transcription activity. It is called telomerase. Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase that lengthens the ends of linear chromosomes. Telomerase carries an RNA template from which it synthesizes DNA repeating sequence, or “junk” DNA.

Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an enzyme that uses DNA with double-strand breaks as an optimal template, by 3-aminobenzamide also increased the frequencies of X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations, which supports the idea that DNA double-strand breaks are important lesions for the production of chromosomal aberrations induced by ionizing radia- by: Research on DNA and chromosome aberrations focuses on cancer genetics and epigenetics.

Topics include regulation of gene expression; DNA damage from exposure to chemical, physical, and endogenous agents; mechanisms of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair; and genomic instability and related molecular, cytogenetic, and chromosomal effects during tumor formation and.

Cells that are not able to properly repair DNA damage undergo cell death or the unrepaired and imprecisely repaired DNA damage can cause of mutations and chromosomal aberrations. Proton beams. This process is common for eukaryotic cells and tends to act as a repair mechanism, but can lead to these mutations if illegitimate recombination occurs.

The illegitimate recombination will often take the form of large chromosomal aberrations within a eukaryotic organism as it has much larger segments of DNA than prokaryotic cells.

A new hypothesis on the appearance of exchange chromosomal aberrations has been suggested. According to this hypothesis, temporal duplex polynucleotide structure should arise during G1 and G2 phases during the correction of DNA. The size of the duplex, as a rule, should be restricted to the size of complementary nucleotide sequences in the regions of repetitions.

Chromosomal aberrations (CA) are the microscopically visible part of a wide spectrum of DNA changes generated by different repair mechanisms of DNA double strand breaks (DSB).

Post-treatment of UV- MMC- and 4NQO-treated cells in caffeine enhances the production of chromosomal aberrations presumably by inhibiting ligation of newly synthesized DNA, as discussed earlier. The ligation process is either completed by de novo DNA synthesis or by strand exchanges involving a parental and a daughter strand of DNA.

Chromosomal aberrations (CA) are the microscopically visible part of a wide spectrum of DNA changes generated by different repair mechanisms of DNA double strand breaks (DSB).

The method of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) has uncovered unexpected complexities of CA and this will lead to changes in our thinking about the origin of CA.

The. While the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of telomere, rDNA, centromere, and heterochromatin will be of special interest, we will also be open to any advancement exploring the chromosomal instability or genome plasticity and consequences of chromosomal aberrations on a cellular, organism, or population level.

Maciej Wnuk Guest Editor. Basic Life Sci. ; Relationship of DNA lesions and their repair to chromosomal aberration production. Bender MA. Though the roles of some specific DNA lesions in the production of chromosomal aberrations is clearly established, those of others remain unclear.

Natarajan, A. T., and G. Obe, Molecular mechanisms involved in the production of chromosomal aberrations. Utilization of Neurospora endonuclease for the study of aberration production in G 2 stage of the cell cycle, Mutat.

Chromosome pairing is essential in the produc­tion of fertile gametes. The mechanism by which homologous chromosomes heterozygous for inversions accomplish such pairing in the meio­tic sequence is depicted in Figs. and The products of crossing over and sub­sequent stages of meiosis are different for the two types of inversions.

mechanisms preserving genomic integrity and stability both on chromosomal and DNA level dependable on a variety of factors such as the type of damage, chromosomal constitution, chromatin organization and transcriptional activity are fully operational in barley genome.

As life on Earth started to undergo evolution and become more complex, the simpler type of cell called a prokaryote underwent several changes over a long period of time to become eukaryotic cells.

Eukaryotes are more complex and have many more parts than prokaryotes. It took several mutations and surviving natural selection for eukaryotes to evolve and become prevalent. Chromosomal aberrations involving telomeres and ITSs. Damaged telomeres and proper repair failure might result in telomere dysfunction, and when telomere protection fails, the consequences at the cellular level are readily visualised as chromosomal aberrations in mitotic cells.

Genotoxic effect of the tested substance on the somatic cells was determined by chromosomal aberration test of bone marrow cells of mice. Results: In the course of the experiments, no essential changes in the level of DNA damage in the cells were found, even at highest concentrations.

The administration of the substance in doses up to g/kg. What are chromosomal aberrations. How are they. caused. Ans: Any numerical or structural change in the usual chromosome complement of a cell or organism is called chromosome aberration. There are to types of chromosomal aberrations: Changes in the chromosomes: Aneuploidy and euploidy Changes in structure of chromosome: deficiency.

True or False: Rather than being one super-long DNA strand, eukaryotic DNA exists as many smaller, more manageable pieces, called chromosomes. Humans, for example, have three billion base pairs, divided into 23 unique pieces of DNA.

Because we have two copies of each (one from our mother, one from our father), we have 46 chromosomes. A long-appreciated variation in fundamental cell biological processes between different species is becoming increasingly tractable due to recent breakthroughs in whole-genome analyses and genome editing techniques.

However, the bulk of our mechanistic understanding in cell biology continues to come from just a few well-established models. In this Review, I use the highly diverse strategies of. Divides eukaryotic chromosomes into two identical daughter cells. Cell division needed for growth, development, and tissue repair.

Meiosis: Divides eukaryotic chromosomes into different gametes that contain half as many chromosomes as the parent cell. Cell division needed to produce gametes, or sex cells.To analyze SCEs and chromosomal aberrations, cells were grown for two cell cycles in BrdU-containing medium before they were treated with MMS.

Here, 1 µM BrdU was used for CHO cells and 10 µM for MEFs and A cells. 2 h before cells were fixed, 2 mM caffeine and ng/ml colcemid (Sigma-Aldrich) were added.The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of eukaryotic cells carries the blueprint for the biosynthesis of cellular proteins and the control of cellular assembly and regulation.

If all the DNA in a single human cell were stretched out straight and the strands representing all the chromosomes laid end-to-end, they would extend for well over 1 meter (3 feet).